On a Friday afternoon, mourners visit a hill on the outskirts of Kabul where victims of a recent suicide attack that killed more than 80 people are buried. With nearly forty years of war in Afghanistan, freshly dug and empty graves pockmark the landscape. Two young men take a picture on them.
An IDP girl sells petrol in Kabul next to an old school building that was destroyed during the civil war in the early 1990s, near where she lives with her family. They fled from the countryside to the more secure capital of Kabul.
Returning to Afghanistan after 31 years in Pakistan, the family of Sabruddin has just crossed the border at Torkham near Jalalabad. Many Afghan refugees have been forced out of Pakistan in recent years.
A baby cries in a refugee camp on the outskirts of Kabul. The family fled from ISIS in Nangarhar province, near the city of Jalalabad in eastern Afghanistan.
Many brokers at Sarai Shahzada, a currency market in downtown Kabul, are part of a money-transfer system known as hawala, which is often used in the refugee-smuggling business. Afghans leaving their country pay smugglers here in advance for their journeys. Their funds won't be released to the smugglers until they have reached their destinations, such as Europe or Australia. The market is used for many other transactions like converting foreign currency.
Sharif Udin listens from a tree to a police commander calling out names of new passport holders. The 43-year old laborer has been waiting for more then three months for the document, with which he hopes to be able to travel to Iran.
Afghans scramble into the back of a truck in Nimruz province to leave for Pakistan, Iran and often further to Turkey and Europe.
Gulbadeen, from Farah Province, was in the back of a truck heading towards Pakistan and Iran when they struck a land mine. Here he has just been released from hospital with a broken IV.
Afghans in Chahar Burjac, Nimruz province, en route to Pakistan, then Iran, with Baluch smugglers. Nimruzin the southwest is the most remote corner of the country from where many Afghans leave to head for Europe.
Afghan refugee Khalid sleeps on the bank of a road next to a petrol station close to the Macedonian border. He spent one week in Idomeni and tried to cross the border but was stopped by Macedonian police. He is from Nangarhar province, where he says ISIS is on the rise. He says he is hoping to make it to northern Europe.
Afghans walk past a Serbian street seller not far from the train station where an estimated one thousand refugees and migrants stay in sub-zero temperatures.
Afghan and Pakistani men sit next to a wood fire in a derelict warehouse behind the central train station in the Serbian capital Belgrade. Refugees and migrants are trying to stay warm in the smoke-filled building. They have minimal protection against the sub-zero temperatures of the Serbian winter, where this week the temperatures often plunge to -5 Celsius.
Afghan men try with force to wash Nabikhan, also known as Comando, from Afghanistan's Nangarhar province. They say he went mad after Croatian police hit him one month ago on the head with a stick and gave him electric shocks. Croatian and Hungarian police often force refugees and migrants back into Serbia when they try to cross the EU-border at night.
8-Year old Ebrahim, an Afghan boy from Nangarhar province, eats a meal that volunteers hand out once a day. He has been in Belgrade with an uncle for two months, staying in a derelict warehouse behind the central train station of the Serbian capital.
An Afghan man carries an old railway sleeper to make a fire inside a derelict warehouse.
Refugees staying in the Tempelhof refugee shelter, a former airport in Berlin. Currently there are around 500 refugees staying here, half of whom are from Afghanistan. Many have been here for over one year.
Afghan refugee Mortaza (from Samargand) stands on the back of a bicycle while Mustafa (from Badakhshan province) rides it near the river Spree in Berlin on a Sunday in spring. Both have been in Germany for over one year and have applied for asylum.
Afghans celebrate the Afghan New Year by listening and dancing to a performance by Hamayoun Angar, an Afghan singer who came to Europe as a refugee a couple of years ago.
Afghan refugees are escorted out of "The Jungle" by French police officers while tents go up in flames. The authorities are trying to evacuate an estimated 8,000 refugees and migrants and demolish the makeshift refugee camp next to the highway leading to the port, from where many have tried to reach the UK.
An Afghan refugee packs his belongings while a fire destroys his tent during a police operation in "The Jungle" . The French authorities are trying to close and demolish the makeshift refugee camp next to the highway leading to the port of Calais.
Asylum seekers from Iran, Iraq and Afghanistan try to return to their safe houses in Jakarta after a failed attempt to reach a boat at night. The Indonesian police intercepted their convoy near Sukabumi on the way to the southern coast of Java. With the help of smugglers they are trying to reach the Australian territory of Christmas Island, about 200 miles, or three days by boat from southern Java.
In the early morning hours on the first day of their journey, asylum seekers crowd together under a tarp. Fifty-seven asylum seekers and two Indonesian crew members begin the three-day trip aboard a 30-foot vessel, the coast of Java growing vaguer. Their destination is an Australian territory, more than 200 miles across the Indian Ocean, called Christmas Island.
Fifty-seven asylum seekers, all Iranian but one Afghan man from Kunduz in Afghanistan, and two Indonesian crew members, during a three-day trip heading to the Australian territory of Christmas Island. They signal after making a distress call to the Australian authorities after entering Australian waters.
Masuma walks past a bride in Moscow's Gorky Park. After receiving threats for working with foreigners and the election commission in her hometown of Herat, she decided to leave Afghanistan. She's now an engineering PhD student in Moscow which allows her to stay at least another three years. Masuma was born to Afghan refugees in Iran and deported back to Afghanistan during the time of the Taliban as a teenager.
Afghans gather in Sacramento to pray and celebrate Eid-al-Fitr, the end of Ramadan. Most Afghans in this community are former interpreters for the US Armed Forces and USAID and came to the US on Special Immigration Visas, SIVs.